Gas Chromatography or Gas Liquid Chromatography is a technique Applied for separation, identification and quantification of elements of a composite of organic compounds by selective partitioning between the stationary phase and mobile phase in a column followed by sequential elution of separated components. The technique is suitable for separation of materials having following characteristics, High volatility, Thermal stability, Low molecular weights, Majorly, there are two gas chromatography forms into which it is classified gas-liquid chromatography and GSC or gas-solid chromatography.
Both the methods utilize either solid or liquid as a stationary phase when using gas as the mobile phase. In gas chromatography, the retention of analytes is due to physical adsorption. On the other hand, gas-liquid chromatography separates the ions or molecules that are dissolved in a solvent. The underlying principle is as the sample solution makes contact with another liquid or solid phase, the solutes will start interacting with the other phases. As a consequence of different adsorption rates, ion-exchanges, partitioning or measurements, the interaction will vary, and that is what will enable the separation of the blended components from one another. These differences will create the sample blend pass at different rates across the column, in addition to the compounds can be separated. A Gas Chromatograph like any other analytical Instrument has evolved from one with several knobs and dials to one with a Simple microprocessor-based keypad to control the operational parameters.
The simplification has generated simplicity of operation and time-saving. An Understanding of the principal component parts will help in maximum usage of system capacities. The gas chromatography includes A high peak capacity in comparison to other separation methods. Though It has the capability to separate a huge number of chemicals, there are a lot of applications That require thousands of peaks to be broken and we don’t have sufficient Theoretical plates to separate them through chromatography. A frequent example of this is that the Analysis of diesel that involves identifying trace analytes in complex matrices, such as food samples or environmental samples. The analysis could be carried out without complete chromatographic resolution through spectral resolution, where MS is hyphenated with GC. But this technique can be effective under the Condition the coeluting peaks have different spectra.